Precise (±2cm) Indoor Positioning and Navigation

for autonomous robots, drones, vehicles and humans


10x more accurate than UWB.
100x more accurate than BLE/WiFi


Up to 10 times less expensive than alternatives


Precise RTLS for various applications: autonomous robotics, vehicles, drones, manufacturing, logistics, safety. Works indoor and outdoor

Easy to deploy

Basic configurations can be deployed in 5 minutes


250 beacons/tags supported today, covering 20,000m2 and more.
Thousands beacons/tags supported with Multi-Modem tomorrow


Suitable for large-scale industrial applications and university projects

Quick delivery

The same or next day shipment for the majority of products.
Free of charge shipment for orders starting from 499 EUR


Various support channels from online chat to full managed services

Marvelmind Precise Indoor Positioning System

Marvelmind precise indoor navigation and positioning system is the world’s most precise commercially available indoor positioning system (IPS) or indoor real-time location system (RTLS) for industrial and robotics applications.


It is a off-the-shelf ready-to-use indoor navigation system based on stationary ultrasonic beacons united by radio interface in license-free ISM band (915/868 MHz or 433MHz). See more about the Architectures comparison.


Location of a mobile beacon installed on a robot (vehicle, copter, human) is calculated based on the propagation delay of ultrasonic signal to a set of stationary ultrasonic beacons using trilateration.

The world’s most precise indoor RTLS

Marvelmind indoor RTLS gives ±2cm precision indoor. Superior accuracy is the key differentiator indoor. That level of accuracy is achievable only by very few commercially available technologies:


– RTK GPS – but GPS/GLONASS doesn’t work indoor and, as a result, RTK GPS doesn’t work indoor either


– LIDARs – but they are very costly, power hungry, bulky and suitable only for limited applications in AGVs or autonomous robots. LIDARs are not generally suitable for people or assets tracking or drones. LIDARs are very good for obstacle detection and avoidance, but have limited practical usability for RTLS in complex industrial environment


– Optical motion capture – but that works only in very limited area and is very costly, because requires a dense network of expensive high-speed cameras, cable wiring and fast computers and is not really suitable for industrial applications


In practice, it means that if you need tracking accuracy better than that in UWB, the only viable option is Marvelmind RTLS.

Review and comparison of RTLS technologies


Find out more in our popular detailed presentation “Review and comparison of different indoor positioning technologies and methods with focus on industrial applications” in PDF.


If interested to learn even in more details, watch a detailed 90-minute YouTube explanatory video about different types of indoor positioning or indoor real-time location systems for industry, warehousing, intralogistics, construction sites, mining and underground.

Indoor “GPS”


Another very useful thing about Marvelmind indoor positioning system is that we stream out data in the native GPS format – NMEA0183, i.e. your external devices are automatically integrated with Marvelmind beacons or Marvelmind modem, because they will believe they are connected to a regular GPS, but which is very precise (±2cm) and that works indoor. Thus, we often call our system Indoor “GPS”



For comparison, ultra-wideband (UWB) systems give around 10-30 cm positioning accuracy, which is great per se and is usually sufficient for people tracking in industrial applications, but not sufficient for robots or drones. Marvelmind gives ~10 times better accuracy that UWB and is less expensive at the same time. See a comparison video.


For info, see our practical recommendations for UWB system planning.

BLE / WiFi


Unlike the UWB technology that is designed for RTLS and that is using time-of-flight (ToF) to measure the distances and trilateration to calculate the position (like GPS does), BLE or WiFi systems are based on the radio signal strength (RSSI-based RTLS) to estimate the distance and are not designed for RTLS.


Their RTLS capability is just a nice by-product of the overall great wireless data transmission technologies. But the data transmission technologies are not necessarily great for indoor positioning or RTLS in general. Thus, BLE systems give modest 3-10 meter accuracy (WiFi is even less precise). That is 100 times worse than the Marvelmind indoor positioning system.


The only great benefit of BLE is that you don’t need to have a mobile beacon (tag) on the person. Your phone is the mobile beacon. Thus, BLE is good for guiding people in shopping malls, museums or airports.


BLE is not well suitable for industrial or warehouse applications, where you need accuracy better than room-level or you have a lot of metal, because the RSSI is hugely distorted by the moving metal (vehicles, palettes, shelves, etc.) and the accuracy of the position estimation degrades further.


Also, it is worth noting, that for assets tracking you need have a mobile beacon (tag) anyway attach to the assets. Thus, benefits of BLE vanish even more as compared with tracking of mobile phones.

Typical Use Cases

Autonomous Robots


Autonomous delivery robot to deliver boxes from a warehouse to the assembly line within a car assembly plant:

Delivery demo: external view

Delivery demo: system view


Autonomous advertising robots rambling inside a shopping mall on a predefined path and attracting a crowd and advertising a local dining place


Autonomous inspection robots in metro and tunnels


– Myriads of different university projects in autonomous robotics:

Autonomously driving robot indoor

Autonomously driving robot outdoor

Robot driving 8-pattern

Autonomous Drones


Main Marvelmind Drones page


Inspection drones for warehouses, construction sites and bridges. Virtually any kind of drones with external GPS inputs in the GNSS-denied areas. PixHawk-based drones. Both ArduPilot and PX4 stacks are support:

– Precise drone tracking indoor

Precise drone tracking outdoor

Autonomous drone indoor

Autonomous drone with Paired Beacons


Micro-drones for shows


PixHawk-based drones and integration with ArduPilot and PX4

People Tracking


– Tracking of warehouse workers for productivity and safety in a warehouse


– Tracking of museum visitors to analyze the visitors’ visiting pattern and arrange the exhibitions accordingly


Interactive museum exhibitions showing different multimedia content depending on the type (color) of the visitor’s badge – kids, general audience, professionals


Multi-floor people tracking for industrial applications

Forklifts Tracking


Tracking of forklifts in a warehouse to collect the real-time location data and to optimize routing and movements of the forklifts in order to increase productivity


– Tracking of forklifts including their forks in 3D in order to find misplaced palettes inside a warehouse more quickly


– Automatic job assigning to the nearest forklift based on the job and forklifts locations


– Speeding (accidents) prevention


– Tracking of forklift-like vehicles in an aluminum melting plant to measure the drivers adherence to the working procedures and overall response time in case of accidents

Precise RTLS for Industry


An excavator and a team of 15 workers. The task was to calculate the excavator’s productivity by measuring the amount of movements the excavator’s bucket made during the working shift. Another task was to increase safety by creating geo-fencing zone around the excavator warn workers in case of dangerous proximity with the moving parts of the excavator


– Precise position measurement of a huge hook with 42-tonne carrying capacity inside a steel melting plant. Precise tracking of the hook in 3D + hook’s angle against a bridge crane and against the loading vehicles. The setup used for productivity and safety

Vehicles Tracking


– Local RTLS in the GNSS denied areas for public parking authorities


– Bus parking assistance for bus drivers and autonomous buses


– Automatic docking station of boats in harbor – precise localization of connectors from the ground charging station to the boats’ mating part

Swarm Robotics


– Research in swarm robotics. Demo: Precise tracking of 90 swarming robots in real time


– Precise – 1-2-cm level accuracy – localization of multiple mobile objects. Demo and the settings



– Research of autonomous boats


Tracking of racing R/C boats



– Hockey

– Figure skating

– Skating

– Horse riding

– Carting



– Different VR and AR applications:

– Industrial VR training on nuclear station

– Selling houses in VR

VR demo: Location+Direction


VR team games and VR quests as an alternative to hugely expensive motion capture systems


We offer

Easy to deploy ready to use inexpensive kits equipped with all required hardware and software to deploy small precise RTLS in your specific environment before building larger networks. Check Products.


When you have successfully tested the system and familiarized with it expand by adding more stationary beacons (anchors) and more mobile beacons (tags). Choose yours in Products.

Larger projects

We do the full range of services – from basic initial assessment and recommendation to the onsite deployment with tuning and optimization and managed services. Various levels of support.

Customized software

We do SW customization, add new features or tune the existing ones based on your specific requests. Send to us details via:

White-label solution

For larger projects we are ready to supply white-label products. Request via email:


We are happy to teach our partners and customers how to build and operate the system most efficiently. Contact us via email:


Yes, of course!


Here are a few demos:

Precise (±2 cm) indoor tracking in XYZ without GPS/GLONASS

Precise (±2 cm) drone tracking outdoor without GPS/GLONASS – horizontal flight on two echelons

Demo: precise height tracking


The main requirement for the 3D tracking is a direct line of sight/hearing between the mobile beacon and 3 or more stationary beacons within 30 meters.

Yes, it can be done easily:

– Send us an email at

– Describe your needs and requirements. If you have selected your products or sets – the links and the quantities

– Share your contact name, company name (if any), contact phone number and other details that you wish we mention, for example, VAT number, etc.

– We issue the invoice on the same day

– You pay via bank transfer (in USD, EUR or GBP)

– We wait for the payment to arrive (1-2 days usually) and ship

We have three main architectures:

1) Inverse Architecture (IA)

2) Non-Inverse Architecture (NIA)

3) Multi-Frequency MF NIA


Check video:


1) IA is most of all suitable when you have multiple (~ >5 mobile objects) and when the location update rate is important. Also, IA should be your choice when you want to have mobile beacons noiseless, because regular ultrasonic transmitting beacons “tick”. You cannot hear the ultrasonic, but you can hear a quiet tick. Typical demos:

Precise tracking of 90 swarming robots in real time

Tracking four warehouse workers

2) NIA is designed when you have noisy mobile objects, but a few of them, for example, 1-2 inspection drones in a warehouse. Another great benefit of NIA is that it is very simple to deploy – significantly simpler than IA, particularly, for larger maps consisting of many submaps. Thus, if you are just starting with Marvelmind, you may choose NIA at the beginning, but it totally depends on your use case. For small maps of 1-3 submaps IA and NIA are equally simple. Typical demos:

Precise (±2 cm) indoor tracking in XYZ without GPS/GLONASS

Precise (±2 cm) Indoor Navigation in noisy environment

3) MF NIA combines the best from IA and NIA. You can have up to 5 times higher update rate for noisy objects than in NIA. Typical demo:

Precise (±2cm) tracking for R/C racing boats

Find out more about the architectures in the Architectures Comparison.

We have 2 HW variants for some products:

1) 915/868MHz

2) 433MHz


Please, always check your local regulator as the best source of information. Ask about license-free bands or ISM bands or SRD bands.


We have significantly more products in the 915/868MHz variant than in the 433MHz band. For example, Mini-RX, Super-Beacons, Industrial beacons/modem and their derivatives (Helmets, Jackets, etc.) are currently available in 915/868MHz only. So, if you can choose between 915/868MHz and 433MHz, we recommend to choose 915/868MHz.


Notice, that 433MHz or 868MHz or 915MHz is a band name – not a frequency. For example, Marvelmind HW supporting 915/868MHz band supports frequencies ~860-930MHz. It means, for example, that for Japan we recommend the 915/868MHz HW, but the real frequencies that will be used are 920.5-923.5MHz.


Some seed links for self-study:

– License-free ISM band 915 MHz for the US and countries in Region 2 (

– License-free SRD 868 MHz band for the EU and other countries (


Recommendations for some countries based on our knowledge:

– Australia: 915MHz (SRD) or 433MHz (ISM)

– Brazil and South America: 915MHz

– Canada: 915MHz (ISM)

– China Mainland: 433MHz

– EU: 868MHz (SRD) or 433MHz (ISM)

– India: 868MHz

– Indonesia: 915MHz

– Japan: 915MHz

– Korea: 915MHz

– Russia: 868MHz (SRD) or 433MHz (ISM)

– Singapore: 915MHz

– Taiwan: 915MHz

– Turkey: 868MHz (SRD) or 433MHz (ISM)

– UAE: 868MHz (SRD) or 433MHz (ISM)

– UK: 868MHz (SRD) or 433MHz (ISM)

– US: 915MHz (ISM)

– Vietnam: 915MHz


Yes, the Paired Beacon feature is supported in both IA and NIA:

– IA:

– NIA:


In general, we strongly recommend against using magnetometers indoors. There are nearly always magnetic materials (iron, alloys) or wires with current that would heavily distort the Earth magnetic field and ruin the magnetometer readings.

Yes, the Paired Beacon feature is supported in both IA and NIA:

– IA:

– NIA:


In general, we strongly recommend against using magnetometers indoors. There are nearly always magnetic materials (iron, alloys) or wires with current that would heavily distort the Earth magnetic field and ruin the magnetometer readings.

Yes, it is possible by using using the Real-Time Player (RTP) with more filtering. You can quite easily get sub-cm. However, the latency will increase as well. For example, instead of regular latency of 1/8 sec for the 8Hz update rate, you shall expect 5-16 x 1/8 sec ~1-2 sec latency, which depends on the level of filtering selected in the RTP. Demo:

Measuring iPhone by Marvelmind Indoor “GPS”. Who else can do so?! 🙂
Precisely tracking 60 mobile robots: settings, hints and advises

Yes, we support all three. Please see Downloads page.

For more information, check the Drones page.

Yes, you can easily use your own GUI and integrate Marvelmind Indoor “GPS” into your system. We have API for both Windows and Linux. Download them here.

First of all, it is important to distinguish between the distance limitations due to ultrasonic and the distance limitations due to radio.

Using submaps of up to 30m each, the maps can be up to 1km (500m in each direction from the modem) with full-size antennas and open space with little or no radio interference.

Beacons measure distances using ultrasonic pulses. Thus, ultrasonic line of hearing/line of sight is a must inside a submap. Between submaps – not necessarily. It depends on the map. The regular recommended maximum distance between beacons on one submap is up to 30m. But you can have multiple submaps and to build large maps of a few hundred meters in length.

With Marvelmind Horn in 1D it is possible to have up to 120m maximum ultrasonic distance on one submap – it is a great option for tunnels or surveying, for example.

The modem communicates with beacons using radio in a license-free band (433MHz or 868MHz or 915MHz, depending on your beacon’s/modem’s HW). Line of sight is not required for radio communication. The maximum distance depends mostly on the antennas:

– For embedded antennas – ~50-100m

– For the default 50mm antennas – 100m+

– For the full-size antenna – up to 400m+

All in open space.

The maximum distance in radio through walls completely depends on the type of the walls and can be significantly shorter than the figures above. For example, it may be rather difficult to cover even several floors. But walls on the same floor can be less of a problem, because, they are often thin and radio transparent, particularly in the office environment. Much less so in industrial or warehouse environments.

Yes, nearly all Marvelmind beacons have IMU onboard. Only Beacons HW v4.9 are without IMU. Beacons HW v4.9 are mostly used as stationary beacons in NIA and don’t need IMU.

No, of course, it doesn’t rely on real GPS, because GPS doesn’t work indoor, because there is no visibility to the satellites, and because real GPS gives usually 5-10 m accuracy while our Indoor “GPS” gives ±2cm.


However, Marvelmind Indoor “GPS” or Marvelmind Indoor Positioning System or Marvelmind RTLS – whatever name you prefer – is very much like GPS for the end-users and this why:


– The system streams out location data in NMEA0183 – native GPS format. So, you just need to physically connect to your robot, drone or the system that is GPS-enabled and that has external GPS input and your robot/drone/system is already integrated with Marvelmind Indoor “GPS”. That is it. Everything is done. Your robot will believe that it is GPS connected, but to a marvelous GPS that works indoor and gives ±2cm precision instead of usual 5-10m


– Like GPS, the system requires line of sight of your mobile beacon (“the GPS terminal”) to the stationary beacons (“the GPS satellites”). The GPS needs at least 4 satellites. We ask 1 stationary for 1D tracking; 2 stationary beacons for 2D tracking; 3 stationary beacons for 3D tracking. And we always recommend redundancy for more resilience against obstructions – N+1 or 2N configurations of stationary beacons.